Country of origin dating
The name is first attested in the 13th century as German Weissrussland and Latin Russia Alba, first in reference to Russia's White and then Black Sea coasts.
Upon the restoration of independence, the name was deemed no longer appropriate since the historic kingdom comprised only the southern regions and ethnicities of the modern state. Names similar to Bhutan—including Bottanthis, Bottan, Bottanter—began to appear in Europe around the 1580s.
The earliest reference to Bengal (বঙ্গ, Bôngô) has been traced in the early-9th-century Nesari plates.
It is derived from the ancient Vanga or Banga Kingdom mentioned in the Mahabharata as located in eastern Bengal, which in turn is thought to preserve the name of a Dravidian-speaking tribe called the Bang who settled the region around the year 1000 BC.
The present Kingdom of Belgium adopted the name upon its independence from the Netherlands in 1830 based on the French-language name of Henri Van der Noot's brief-lived United States of Belgium () which had declared its independence from Austria in 1790.
The tribe's exact endonym remains unknown, but the name Belgae is usually traced to the proposed Proto-Celtic root *belg- from the Proto-Indo-European *bhelgh-, both meaning "to bulge" or "to swell" (particularly with anger) and cognate with the Old English belgan, "to be angry"."[Land beside] the Bight of Benin", the stretch of the Gulf of Guinea west of the Niger delta, a purposefully neutral name chosen to replace Dahomey (see below) in 1975.